The feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe: A peasant, an apparition and a tilma miracle

Front of cathedral with pillars and painting of Our Lady of Guadalupe

The interior of the Colima Cathedral, in Mexico. Note: The Colima Cathedral was the first Catholic church in Latin America to be consecrated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, though it does not house the tilma of Juan Diego and is not the famed Catholic pilgrimage site. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12: Catholic accounts state that on the morning of Dec. 9, 1531, the peasant Juan Diego saw an apparition of a young girl at the Hill of Tepeyac, near Mexico City: today, the series of miracles that followed are recalled on the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

On Dec. 12, 1531—three days after the first apparition sighting—Juan Diego opened his cloak before a local bishop, and an image of Our Lady that is still vivid today was imprinted inside. The apparitions seen by Juan Diego bridged a gap between the natives’ belief systems and the Catholic religion, and in centuries since, the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe has been cherished across Mexico and in parts of Latin America.

THE APPARITION & THE TILMA

According to Catholic tradition: On the morning of December 9, 1531, Juan Diego was on his way to Mass. While walking, Juan Diego spotted a young girl at the Hill of Tepeyac; the girl spoke to him in his native language, Nahuatl, and asked that a church be built at the site, in her honor. Based on her words, Juan Diego recognized the girl as the Virgin Mary.

Did you know? Peasant Juan Diego was canonized in 2002.

People in white on their knees in middle of cemented area with picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe on their shirts

Pilgrims at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, in Mexico City. Each year on or before December 12, pilgrims arrive—some even crawl on their knees for miles as they approach the basilica. Photo by Geraint Rowland, courtesy of Flickr

When Juan Diego approached Spanish Archbishop Fray Juan de Zumarraga, the archbishop asked for proof of the apparition’s identity. The apparition then instructed Juan Diego to gather out-of-season Castilian roses from a hilltop, and to revisit the archbishop. Juan Diego opened his cloak before the archbishop, letting the roses fall to the floor—and there, on the inside of the tilma (cloak), was an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe.

According to Catholic sources, several miracles have been associated with Juan Diego’s tilma through the centuries, including the tilma itself: with its construction of coarse cactus fiber, the tilma should have degraded hundreds of years ago. The colors forming the image of Our Lady are as yet unidentified, and in 1951, photographers discovered reflections in the Virgin’s eyes that identify the individuals present at Juan Diego’s unveiling. Studies have revealed that the stars in Mary’s mantle match what would have been seen in the Mexican sky in December of 1531.

MILLIONS FLOCK TO PILGRIMAGE SITE

The Virgin Mary has been deemed the “Queen of Mexico,” and in 1945, Pope Pius XII declared her the the Empress of all the Americas. Currently, the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe (grounds shown, at right) competes for the most visited Catholic pilgrimage destination in the world.

A MEXICAN MENU, GUADALUPE HYMNS AND MORE

Catholics everywhere can honor Our Lady of Guadalupe with a novena, or with a Mexican dinner in honor of Juan Diego and the basilica. (Find easy recipes and decoration ideas at Catholic Cuisine, and a recipe for Mexican lentil soup at The Catholic Foodie. For novenas and more, visit CatholicCulture.org.) Beef broth, flan, Mexican bread pudding and mole poblano—finished with café con leche—could all contribute to a dinner feast for the occasion.

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Assumption of Mary, Dormition of Theotokos: Christians celebrate Jesus’s mother

Statue in front of pillars and below stained glass dome in church

The Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Chartres Cathedral, France. Photo by Joe deSousa, courtesy of Flickr

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 15: The Eastern Orthodox Dormition Fast (begun Aug. 1) has ended, and Christians bow their heads, today, for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Dormition of the Theotokos. Two names for the same event, both the Assumption and the Dormition proclaim that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was assumed into heaven in body and soul. Whether or not Mary died before being assumed does vary by tradition—for Catholic Christians, the question remains open, while for Orthodox Christians, firm belief holds that she did, in fact, die a mortal death.

No evidence of Mary’s Assumption exists in scripture, yet the belief has been engrained in both branches of Christianity for centuries. With no scriptural evidence, the Church points, instead, to passages in Revelations, Genesis and Corinthians, to mention of a woman “caught between good and evil” and to those fallen asleep after Christ’s resurrection. Theologians and Christians have pointed out that a woman so close to Jesus during his earthly life would have naturally been assumed into Heaven, to be with him there.

MARY THROUGH THE CENTURIES

Apocryphal accounts of the Assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since the 4th century, and teachings of the Assumption have been widespread since the 5th century. Theological debate continued in the centuries following, and though most Catholic Christians had held belief in the Assumption for quite some time, it wasn’t until 63 years ago—on November 1, 1950—that Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary to be an infallible dogma of faith.

EAST AND WEST: THE DORMITION VS. THE ASSUMPTION

In the East: Eastern Christians believe that the Virgin Mary died a natural death, and that her soul was received by Christ upon death. Three days following, Mary’s body was resurrected, and she was taken up into heaven, bodily. (Learn more from the Orthodox Church in America.)

In the West: Catholics are divided in thought as to whether or not Mary died, bodily, as this theory has not been dogmatically defined either way. (Global Catholic Network has more.)

A HEAVENLY BIRTHDAY

To many Christians, Eastern and Western, the Assumption is also the Virgin Mary’s heavenly birthday. Mary’s acceptance into the glory of Heaven is viewed as the symbol of Christ’s promise that all devoted Christians will be received into Heaven, too. The feast of the Assumption is a public holiday in many countries, from Austria, Belgium, France and Germany to Italy, Romania and Spain. The day doubles as Mother’s Day in Costa Rica and parts of Belgium.

No details suggest the day or year of Mary’s Assumption, though it is believed that when Mary died, the Apostles flocked to her bedside. At the moment of her death, Jesus Christ descended, and carried her soul to Heaven.

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Categories: Christian

Nativity of Mary, Theotokos: Eastern & Western Christians observe birthday

Mosaic of man and woman huddled over baby

A mosaic of Anna, Joachim and Mary, at Chora Church, in Istanbul. Photo by Nick Thompson, courtesy of Flickr

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 8: Western and Eastern Christians celebrate Mary’s birth today, on the Nativity of Mary (or, as she is known in Orthodox Christianity, the Theotokos). Through many centuries, Christian churches have honored just three figures on both their birth and death anniversaries: Jesus, John the Baptist and Mary.

Known in both Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity as the Virgin Mary, Madonna is the only woman in Christian history to be given the honor of a holy birth. Eastern and Western Christians diverge in their understanding of Mary’s birth, however: for Catholics, Mary’s birth is connected with the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, a dogma formally established by the Vatican in 1854; Eastern Christians believe that while Mary wasn’t without original sin, she was spared actual sin by God’s grace. It is agreed that Mary was born to Sts. Anne and Joachim in Jerusalem.

Ironically, the modern canon of scripture gives no mention of exact details concerning Mary’s birth, as the earliest known account is contained in an apocryphal text from the second century (for this reason, Protestants do not observe the holiday). Christian tradition tells that Mary’s life began piously in Galilee, Nazareth, as a baby born to elderly and previously barren parents. Though they remained faithful to God, Joachim and Anna were without children for many years—a characteristic regarded, at the time, as a punishment for sin. One fateful day, when Joachim had traveled to the temple to make an offering, he was chastised by the High Priest for being childless; his offering was turned away. The distraught husband and wife prayed to God, and the Archangel Gabriel appeared to them, promising a child whose name would be known throughout the world. In nine months, Anna bore a child.

MARY’S NATIVITY FEAST: AROUND THE WORLD

One of the Twelve Great Feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church and a liturgical feast in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, the Nativity of Mary has been celebrated from the earliest centuries of Christianity: a feast for the Nativity of Mary began in the fifth century, and by the seventh century, it was recognized by Byzantine Christians to the East. In France, the grape harvest is at a peak, and winegrowers often refer to the Nativity of Mary as “Our Lady of the Grape Harvest.” Prime grapes are customarily brought to a local church to be blessed, and in some regions, bunches of grapes are attached to the hands of statues of Mary.

Note: For those following the Julian Calendar, this feast day falls on September 21 of the Gregorian Calendar.

In several regions of the world, Mary’s Nativity is marked with seasonal customs and the start of the Indian summer, or “after-summer.” Seeds for winter crop are blessed in many churches across Europe, and in the Alps, cattle and sheep are herded in grand procession from their summer pastures down to the valleys and stables, where they will reside for the cold season. In some areas of Austria, milk from these cattle and sheep is given to the poor, in honor of the Virgin Mary.

IN THE NEWS: MARY SPARED DURING HARVEY

A multitude of news publications is reporting the story of a family whose homes burned down during Hurricane Harvey, only to find that a lone statue of the Virgin Mary stands amidst the rubble. (Read more, and watch a news clip, here.) The two homes, which housed extended family members, burned while the owners had evacuated; upon return, the Blessed Mother statue was found unburied amid the destruction. The family reports that the Virgin Mary is a figure of great importance in their faith and life.

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Categories: Christian

Assumption of Mary, Dormition of Theotokos: Christians honor Virgin Mary

Painting Mary falling asleep

A depiction of the “falling asleep” of Mary. Photo courtesy of Pixabay

TUESDAY, AUGUST 15: The Eastern Orthodox Dormition Fast has ended, and both Eastern and Western Christians bow their heads, today, for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary / Dormition of the Theotokos. Two names for the same event, both the Assumption and the Dormition proclaim that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was assumed into heaven in body and soul. Whether or not Mary died before being assumed does vary by tradition, though—for Catholic Christians, the question remains open, while for Orthodox Christians, firm belief holds that she did, in fact, die a mortal death.

Did you know? In 588 CE, the Emperor Maurice officially adopted the commemoration of the Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (Assumption of the Virgin) into the liturgical calendar of the Byzantine Empire.

No evidence of Mary’s Assumption exists in scripture, yet the belief has been engrained in both branches of Christianity for centuries. With no scriptural evidence, the Church points, instead, to passages in Revelations, Genesis and Corinthians, to mention of a woman “caught between good and evil” and to those fallen asleep after Christ’s resurrection. Theologians and Christians have pointed out that a woman so close to Jesus during his earthly life would have naturally been assumed into Heaven, to be with him there.

To many Christians, Eastern and Western, the Assumption is also the Virgin Mary’s heavenly birthday. Mary’s acceptance into the glory of Heaven is viewed as the symbol of Christ’s promise that all devoted Christians will be received into Heaven, too. The feast of the Assumption is a public holiday in many countries, from Austria, Belgium, France and Germany to Italy, Romania and Spain. The day doubles as Mother’s Day in Costa Rica and parts of Belgium.

THE ASSUMPTION: FROM THE 4TH CENTURY TO 1950 A.D.

Apocryphal accounts of the Assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since the 4th century, and teachings of the Assumption have been widespread since the 5th century. Theological debate continued in the centuries following, and though most Catholic Christians had held belief in the Assumption for quite some time, it wasn’t until 63 years ago—on November 1, 1950—that Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary to be an infallible dogma of faith.

IN THE NEWS: A 2017 INTERFAITH (CONTEST) OPPORTUNITY

The Department of Inter-Orthodox, Ecumenical & Interfaith Relations of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America has announced a contest, open to individuals of all faith traditions, for submission of a video, photo or thesis that best captures the Orthodox Church’s commitment to interfaith cooperation and dialogue. Three winners will each be awarded $500, in the categories of “Original video,” “Original photography” and “M.A. thesis.” Submissions must be turned in by September 21, 2017. (Find more details here.)

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Categories: Christian

Nativity of Mary: Eastern and Western Christians celebrate a holy birth

Full white statue of adult Virgin Mary holding out hands

A statue of the Virgin Mary in New York. Photo by Slice of NYC, courtesy of Flickr

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8: The Eastern and Western branches of Christianity celebrate Mary’s birth on the Nativity of Mary. Down through many centuries, churches honored three figures on both their birthdays and death anniversaries: Jesus, John the Baptist and Mary.

Catholic and Orthodox Christians know her as the Virgin Mary and she remains the only woman in Christian history to receive the honor of a holy birth (i.e. Immaculate Conception). Ironically, the modern canon of scripture gives no mention of exact details concerning Mary’s birth, as the earliest known account is contained in an apocryphal text from the second century. (Readings for the day and more are at USCCB.org.) The Church holds that the Virgin Mary was born without Original Sin, to Sts. Anne and Joachim in Jerusalem.

A feast for the Nativity of Mary began in the fifth century, and by the seventh century, it was recognized by Byzantine Christians to the East. For Eastern Orthodox Christian, September brings the first month of the Ecclesiastical Year. In France, the grape harvest is at a peak, and winegrowers refer to the Nativity of Mary as “Our Lady of the Grape Harvest.” (Wikipedia has details.) Prime grapes are brought to a local church to be blessed, and in some regions, bunches of grapes are attached to the hands of statues of Mary.

NEWS: APPARITIONS & A VATICAN REPORT

On a scale that has garnered attention from the Vatican, the small town of Medjugorje, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been the site of mass tourism since the report of six youths over three decades ago that the Virgin Mary appeared to them. (New York Times has the story.) Unlike most apparitions, this one is reported to have lasted for 34 years—and continues today. Millions have traveled to Medjugorje with dozens of reports of miraculous healings and conversions, though the Vatican has exercised caution and is expected to soon make public its findings on the investigations concerning the apparitions.

 

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Dormition Fast: Orthodox Christians fast for Mary, Mother of God (Theotokos)

Gold background foreground painting of icon of Virgin Mary holding child, halos around their heads

Painting of an Orthodox Christian icon of the Virgin Mary, or Theotokos. Photo by Duckmarx, courtesy of Flickr

SATURDAY, AUGUST 1: As Orthodox Christians look to the Feast of the Dormition, millions enter a fasting period stricter even than that before the Nativity (Christmas).

For Eastern Christians, including many families in the U.S., the two weeks prior to the feast recalling the “falling asleep” of the Virgin Mary are focused on prayers to the Theotokos (“God-bearer”). In this fast, the observant abstain from red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish, oil and wine. The Dormition Fast continues until the Feast of the Dormition, on August 15. (Note: Certain restrictions of the fast are lifted on the Feast of the Transfiguration, on August 6).

The first day of the Dormition Fast hosts the Procession of the Cross, during which an outdoor procession complements the Lesser Blessing of Water.

END OF MARY’S LIFE

The first four centuries of Christianity lack notable reference to the end of Mary’s life, and in most manuscripts, it wasn’t until the 5th century that Dormition traditions begin getting mention. (Wikipedia has details.) Orthodox Christians believe that Mary died a natural death and that her soul was received by Christ upon her death; that her body alone was taken into heaven by Christ on the third day after her death. While some Roman Catholics agree with this belief—as was confirmed by Pope John Paul II, during a General Audience in June 1997—others hold that the Virgin Mary did not experience death and was, instead, assumed into heaven in bodily form.

Did you know? Jerusalem houses Mary’s Tomb and the Basilica of the Dormition.

Christian tradition holds that after Mary spent years serving and raising awareness of the new Church, she received a visit from the Archangel Gabriel, who told her that her death would occur in three days. It is believed that the apostles—many who were not in Jerusalem at the time, but preaching abroad—were miraculously transported to Mary near the time of her death. (Learn more from the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America and the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.) Three days after her death, her body was gone and a sweet fragrance was emitted from the tomb. In many regions, it is still custom to bless fragrant herbs on the Feast of the Dormition.

IN THE NEWS: A MIRACLE?

Claims for miracles associated with Mary surface in news publications frequently, and recently, churchgoers in Sydney, Australia have been posting videos and talking about a painted portrait whose lips moved with the congregation’s recited prayers. (ChristianToday has the story.) The painting, depicting the Virgin Mary with baby Jesus in her arms, is reported as having moved under various lighting; the Catholic Church has reaffirmed that only the bishop of a diocese can officially declare it a miracle.

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Solemnity of the Annunciation: Christians venerate the incarnation of Christ

Painting of young woman in robes sitting on bed, looking at pillar of light in room

An artistic interpretation of the Annunciation, considered the actual moment of Christ’s incarnation. Painting by Henry Ossawa Tanner, photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 25: As the seeds of springtime bring the promise of abundant new life, so today many Christians, especially Catholics, mark the Solemnity of the Annunciation—formerly the Feast of the Annunciation—commemorating the visit of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, with news that she would bear the Son of God. A principal Marian feast, the Solemnity of the Annunciation has been a primary event in the Church year since the 4th or 5th century.

Lady Day, as the solemnity is sometimes called, is observed annually on March 25—nine months before the date of Christmas / Nativity. (Learn more from Fish Eaters.) For several centuries, the New Year began on March 25 for much of Europe; in central Europe, the feast is still alternatively known as the “Feast of Swallows,” as swallows return on or around this day from their migration.

FROM LUKE:
MARY AND GABRIEL

The Gospel of Luke details the story of the Annunciation. According to Luke, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph. When Gabriel approached this woman, the virgin named Mary, it was announced: “Hail, full of Grace, the Lord is with you!” Though Mary was troubled by the greeting, Gabriel assured her that she need not be afraid, and that she had found favor with God. The angel described to Mary the son that would be conceived in her womb, the one who would be the Son of the Most High. (Wikipedia has details.)

Following Mary’s inquiry, Gabriel said, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.” To this, Mary announced herself the “handmaid of the Lord,” to which the will of God would be done, according to the word. The Solemnity of the Annunciation marks the pivotal day of the Incarnation of Christ. Gabriel’s salutation of “Hail Mary” is repeated whenever the “Hail Mary” prayer is recited.

ACTIVITIES & MORE

Ideas are abundant in ways to celebrate the Annunciation. Here are a few ideas from Women for Faith and Family and Global Catholic Network:

Children may draw or craft the Annunciation scene, using crayons, colored pencils, clay and other creative materials.

Adorn the home with flowers, such as the symbolic and favored roses, lilies, baby’s breath or carnations. Alternatively, flower seeds can be planted, to represent the new life coming forth that is “hidden from view.”

Create an Annunciation Candle using a white or blue pillar candle. A small image of the infant Jesus may be fastened to the candle and covered with a tiny cloth, so as to “hide” the baby in the body of the candle.

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Categories: Christian