Valentine’s Day: Show your affection on an international holiday of love

Holding red and pink flat hearts in pink gloved hands, from above

Photo by jill111, courtesy of Pixabay

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Hearts, expressions of love and sweet confections are flowing around the world today, marking the arrival of Valentine’s Day.

In ancient Rome, the fertility festival Lupercalia was observed February 13-15, although historians cannot document specific historical links between Lupercalia and the modern Valentine’s Day. For that matter, history doesn’t document any romantic association with Valentine’s Day until the poetry of Geoffrey Chaucer.

The embers of courtly love began glowing in the High Middle Ages, and by the end of the 18th century, Valentine cards were being produced and exchanged. Through the decades, Valentines evolved from lace-and-ribbon trinkets to paper stationery to a holiday involving more expensive gifts, chocolates and, more recently, jewelry. The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately 190 million valentines are sent in the United States each year (not including the inexpensive Valentine cards exchanged among schoolchildren).

What are the characteristics of true love? The Huffington Post weighs in, with this article.

For couples: In early 2014, Pope Francis released an appeal entitled “The Joy of ‘Yes’ Forever.” Intended for engaged couples but suitable for anyone who is married, this is a perfect read for Valentine’s Day! Read it here.

2019 stats: The National Retail Federation and Prosper Insights & Analytics reports that this year, fewer people are planning to shop for gifts for Valentine’s Day—but those who do spend will be spending a record amount (read more from the NRF). The average shopper is expected to spend approximately $160 (a 13 percent increase from last year) for Valentine’s Day this year, totaling a record $20.7 billion.

THE ‘REAL’ ST. VALENTINE(S): A HISTORY AND A DOZEN

Man in painting with soldiers, others near building

A depiction of Saint Valentine of Terni and disciples. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Through the centuries, Christians have honored nearly a dozen St. Valentines, so any research into the history of the “real” St. Valentine quickly veers toward confusion.

The Encyclopedia Britannica states that St. Valentine is the “name of two legendary martyrs whose lives seem to be historically based. One was a Roman priest and physician who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Christians by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus and was buried on the Via Flaminia. Pope St. Julius I reportedly built a basilica over his grave. The other, bishop of Terni, Italy, was martyred, apparently also in Rome, and his relics were later taken to Terni. It is possible these are different versions of the same original account and refer to only one person.”

American Catholic magazine—one of today’s most popular sources of information for Catholic families—states: “Although the mid-February holiday celebrating love and lovers remains wildly popular, the confusion over its origins led the Catholic Church, in 1969, to drop St. Valentine’s Day from the Roman calendar of official, worldwide Catholic feasts. Those highly sought-after days are reserved for saints with more clear historical record. After all, the saints are real individuals for us to imitate. Some parishes, however, observe the feast of St. Valentine.”

So,  if conversation today heads in the direction of  the history of the “real” St. Valentine, you’re on solid ground to state the simple truth: “Yes, but no one knows for sure.”

FEBRUARY 14 AROUND THE WORLD

Chocolate heart cookies with pink icing on plate

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Albeit a relatively new addition to Asian culture, Valentine’s Day claims its biggest spenders in this region: Customarily, women in South Korea and Japan give chocolates to all male co-workers, friends and lovers on February 14, with men returning the favor two- or threefold on “White Day,” which occurs on March 14. Residents of Singapore spend, on average, between $100 and $500 on Valentine’s Day gifts, according to a recent report.

French and Welsh households commemorate Christian saints of love, and in Finland and Latin American countries, “love” extends to friends and friendships. Western countries most often acknowledge Valentine’s Day with greeting cards, candies and romantic dinner dates. However, in Islamic countries, many officials have deemed Valentine’s Day as unsuitable for Islamic culture.

VALENTINE RECIPES AND LINKS

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Valentine’s Day: Share love, chocolates and prayer, as Ash Wednesday and Valentine’s Day collide

Heart in spoon top of pink mug with drink

Photo courtesy of Pexels

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Love letters, cards, chocolates and red-and-pink décor abound as Valentine’s Day is celebrated around the world. Just be careful not to indulge in sweet treats today if you’re one of the world’s 2 billion Western Christians: Though St. Valentine is recognized as a saint in the church, Ash Wednesday’s fasting and penitence takes precedence, church leaders are saying. So tell your loved ones how you feel, instead: “That’s amore!” An Italian greeting might be appropriate in honor of the feast day for this ancient Roman-Christian martyr known as St. Valentine.

Looking for a Christian twist on Valentine’s greetings? Get inspiration for a DIY card from Solomon’s Canticle of Canticles, a book that uses marital love as a metaphor for God’s love for the Church.

VALENTINE: HISTORY & LEGEND

Hearts hanging light behind

Photo courtesy of Pexels

The history of the saint behind this holiday is mysterious, indeed, and parts of the story are more legend than documented fact. For that reason, in 1969, the Vatican removed St. Valentine from the “General Roman Calendar,” the official registry of saints and their feast days. However, this saint is so beloved that Catholics are free to observe feast days locally and regionally—and millions do so every year.

The problem is that “Valentine” was a popular name in the 3rd Century—and for many years after that. At least two, and most likely several, Valentines were early Christian martyrs. By the 6th Century, Christian leaders were blending their stories into a single heroic tale.

Usually, Valentine is described as a courageous and brilliant defender of Christianity, as a compassionate man who tried to help men and women who were endangered during the period of Roman persecution—and as a priest who performed Christian marriages, including weddings for Roman soldiers and their wives at a time when that practice was illegal. According to legend, Valentine was such a striking figure that Roman Emperor Claudius II personally interrogated him, a practice that would have been quite rare in the Roman court. As the story goes, Valentine refused to recant his faith; the emperor refused to budge; Valentine performed a couple of final miracles (including healing his jailer’s daughter)—and Valentine was killed on February 14.

CHAUCER: CUE THE ROMANCE

The earliest known association of Valentine’s Day with romantic love is in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Parlement of Foules (1382 CE), written for the first anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia. One of the earliest valentine messages still in existence is a 15th-century poem written by Charles, the Duke of Orleans, to his wife, while he was being held in the Tower of London.

By 1797, valentines were becoming so popular that a British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer, full of suggestions for verses in valentine greetings. Cards with verses were already being printed at the time of the Valentine Writer, and numbers of mailed valentines began to soar. By 18th-century England, lovers were exchanging flowers and sweets along with greetings. Today, it’s estimated that average Valentine’s Day spending is upward of $100 per person.

CRAFTS & RECIPES

Gifts may be a nice gesture, but Valentine’s Day doesn’t have to cost a fortune—especially with the DIY ideas from Martha Stewart, DIY Network and Real Simple.

Kids can craft Valentine’s Day greetings with help from Disney’s Family Fun.

 

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Valentine’s Day: Recall an ancient martyr and embrace the diverse looks of love

Heart of chocolates, surrounded by rose petals and a feather

Photo by Kumar’s Edit, courtesy of Flickr

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Happy Valentine’s Day!

Or, you might say: “That’s amore!” in Italian tribute to the ancient Roman-Christian martyr known as St. Valentine.

This annual commemoration of feelings from the heart has spread across the globe in a massive exchange of cards, candy, chocolates and even jewelry—all in the name of love. In Ancient Rome, mid-January to mid-February was celebrated as a dedication to the love between Zeus and Hera, and Feb. 13-15 was a fertility festival. The Christian St. Valentines came into the picture just a few hundred years after Jesus Christ, although none were particularly associated with love; it was a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer that first began the association between St. Valentine’s Day and romance.

Heart candies and treats on a plate with pink and white stripes

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

EXPRESSING LOVE: THEN AND NOW

Today’s holiday traditions began a little more than 200 years ago, with “The Young Man’s Valentine Writer”—a publication of suggested poems for young men to give to their romantic interests. Technology advanced, and Valentine cards were soon being exchanged by thousands. Today, an estimated 190 million valentines are exchanged annually in the U.S. alone. An estimated 1 billion cards are exchanged on Valentine’s Day each year in the U.S., and Americans account for $20 billion of the $50 billion worldwide chocolate industry, according to trade publications. Of course, new media is also reshaping Valentine’s Day; last year, 15 million e-Valentines were sent via Internet connections.

Valentine’s Day is, today, a national observance in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, the UK, France, Australia, Denmark, Italy and Japan.

ST. VALENTINE: THE MAN AND THE LEGEND

The history of the saint behind this holiday is mysterious, indeed, and parts of the story are more legend than documented fact. For that reason, in 1969, the Vatican removed St. Valentine from the “General Roman Calendar,” the official registry of saints and their feast days. However, this saint is so beloved that Catholics are free to observe feast days locally and regionally—and millions do so every year.

St. Valentine on a vintage Valentine's Day greeting

A vintage Valentine’s greeting featuring a rendition of St. Valentine. Photo by Joe Haupt, courtesy of Flickr

The problem is that “Valentine” was a popular name in the 3rd Century—and for many years after that. At least two, and most likely several, Valentines were very early Christian martyrs. By the 6th Century, Christian leaders were blending their stories into a single heroic tale. Sorting out those records got even more complicated when a dozen more Valentines eventually were regarded as saints—piling up through the centuries in various corners of the Christian church.

Usually, Valentine is described as a courageous and brilliant defender of Christianity, as a compassionate man who tried to help men and women who were endangered during the period of Roman persecution—and as a priest who performed Christian marriages, including weddings for Roman soldiers and their wives at a time when that practice was illegal. According to legend, Valentine was such a striking figure that Roman Emperor Claudius II personally interrogated him, a practice that would have been quite rare in the Roman court. As the story goes, Valentine refused to recant his faith; the emperor refused to budge; Valentine performed a couple of final miracles (including healing his jailer’s daughter)—and Valentine was killed on February 14.

Looking for a Christian twist on Valentine’s greetings? Get inspiration for a DIY card from Solomon’s Canticle of Canticles, a book that uses marital love as a metaphor for God’s love for the Church.

2017 NEWS, RECIPES & DIY GIFT IDEAS

Gifts may be a nice gesture, but Valentine’s Day doesn’t have to cost a fortune—especially with this year’s tips from Reader’s Digest. For DIY gift ideas, look to Martha Stewart, DIY Network and Real Simple.

Traveling for Valentine’s Day? Wandering lovers can score deals with tips from the New York Times.

Spending the night in? Find an assortment of romantic recipes at Food Network and Food & Wine.

LUSH Cosmetics is making headlines with its 2017 LGBTQ Valentine’s Day campaign, which has been dubbed “adorable.”

Gifting a box subscription this Valentine’s Day?  Parade reviews the best Valentine’s Day box subscription services.

Cheesecake and chocolate are two indulgent flavors that will be combined with the release of cheeseake M&Ms, for this year’s holiday of love.

Looking for this year’s love-inspired beauty trends? People.com tracks the most popular beauty trends for Valentine’s Day 2017.

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Valentine’s Day: Celebrate your love story, friendships & sweetness

Pages of book folded into heart shape

What’s your love story? Photo by Kate Ter Haar, courtesy of Flickr

SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Declare love for someone special in your life today without the limits of chocolates and roses—Valentine’s Day has a rich and varied history that includes friendship, sacred marriages and even courtly love. From Finland, where friendship is celebrated, to the religious devotion of three early Christian saints named Valentine, one message is clear: Today is the day to express boundless love, however and to whomever you see fit!

Vintage postcard child cupid with wings pulling wagon with flowers and gifts

Photo by Anaiba Estevez, belongs to Laminas Vintage, courtesy of Picasa

Some historians point to the ancient Roman festival of Lupercalia as the start of the modern cupid’s day; ancient Greeks also observed a mid-February festival, dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera. In the High Middle Ages, the connection between mid-February and ooey-gooey love began to cement—particularly when Geoffrey Chaucer composed Parlement of Foules for King Richard II of England and Anne of Bohemia. News of the Parlement spread rapidly, and courtly love soon flourished. Lovers across the country began expressing their feelings for each other on Valentine’s Day, with long poems, flowers and notes.

Did you know? The earliest credited “valentine”—aside from the alleged note written in a jail cell by St. Valentine, more than 1,000 years earlier—was composed in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife.

By 1797, a romantic Valentine’s Day was all the rage in Europe. A British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer to encourage note-writing lovers, and soon after, printers began mass-producing Valentine cards. Today, the U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately 1 billion valentines are sent or given annually.

ST. VALENTINE—OR ST. VALENTINES?

Historically, there were three Saint Valentines in Christian history, all of whom are honored on St. Valentine’s Day. Of the three, the most noted Valentine was a Roman priest who assisted persecuted Christians during the 3rd century. This Valentine performed secret weddings for soldiers, and even handed out paper heart cutouts to symbolize God’s love. On the night before his execution, legend has it that Valentine wrote a letter to his jailer’s daughter, signing it, “from your Valentine.”

VALENTINE’S DAY AROUND THE WORLD

Table set fancy food plate empty wine glasses restaurant

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

Globally, Valentine’s Day is about much more than romantic love. In Finland and Estonia, Valentine’s Day celebrates friendship; in some Latin countries, the holiday is known as “Day of Love and Friendship.” In Asia, two holidays—Valentine’s Day, and its reciprocal holiday, White Day—make for two expensive occasions for exchanging gifts with that special someone. Traditional Hindu and Islamic cultures generally disregard Valentine’s Day, though in Iran, efforts have been made in recent years to establish a festival of love for mothers and wives on Feb. 7.

RECIPES & DIY IDEAS ‘FROM THE HEART’

Does home cooking impress your valentine? Try recipes from Food & Wine, Food Network and New York Times.

On-screen romance blooms with these suggestions for the most romantic movies on Netflix.

Single? Try this list of movies for Valentine’s Day.

Looking for date ideas? Check out these, from Huffington Post.

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St. Valentine’s Day: Say ‘That’s amore!’ for the legendary martyr of Rome

Conversation heart candies close-up, messages "I Love You" and "Forever"

Photo courtesy of Pixabay

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Love notes, red roses, chocolates and cupid’s arrows decorate Valentine’s Day around the world, so tell your loved ones how you feel: “That’s amore!” An Italian greeting might be appropriate in honor of the feast day for this ancient Roman-Christian martyr known as St. Valentine.

CALLING CHOCOLATE LOVERS

An estimated 1 billion cards are exchanged on Valentine’s Day each year in the U.S., with many also purchasing flowers, candies and other gifts. Americans account for $20 billion of the $50 billion worldwide chocolate industry, according to trade publications. The U.S. companies Mars and Hershey’s account for two-thirds of U.S. production—which rises and falls, each year, around holidays including Easter, Christmas and of course Valentine’s Day.

Did you know? “Among the people you can thank for this wonderful Valentine’s Day tradition of giving chocolate: Montezuma, Hernan Cortes and Richard Cadbury.” To learn more about that delicious history (and get a yummy recipe for chocolate mousse), check out Bobbie Lewis’s FeedTheSpirit column this week.

VALENTINE’S ‘HISTORY’?

Compared with the history of chocolate, the history of the saint behind this holiday is mysterious, indeed, and parts of the story are more legend than documented fact. For that reason, in 1969, the Vatican removed St. Valentine from the “General Roman Calendar,” the official registry of saints and their feast days. However, this saint is so beloved that Catholics are free to observe feast days locally and regionally—and millions do so every year.

The problem is that “Valentine” was a popular name in the 3rd Century—and for many years after that. At least two, and most likely several, Valentines were very early Christian martyrs. By the 6th Century, Christian leaders were blending their stories into a single heroic tale. Sorting out those records got even more complicated when a dozen more Valentines eventually were regarded as saints—piling up through the centuries in various corners of the Christian Church.

Usually, Valentine is described as a courageous and brilliant defender of Christianity, as a compassionate man who tried to help men and women who were endangered during the period of Roman persecution—and as a priest who performed Christian marriages, including weddings for Roman soldiers and their wives at a time when that practice was illegal. According to legend, Valentine was such a striking figure that Roman Emperor Claudius II personally interrogated him, a practice that would have been quite rare in the Roman court. As the story goes, Valentine refused to recant his faith; the emperor refused to budge; Valentine performed a couple of final miracles (including healing his jailer’s daughter)—and Valentine was killed on February 14.

Looking for a Christian twist on Valentine’s greetings? Get inspiration for a DIY card from Solomon’s Canticle of Canticles, a book that uses marital love as a metaphor for God’s love for the Church.

ADDING THE ROMANCE

Angel cupid with lace surrounding and red ribbons in formal Valentine's greeting

A printed Valentine’s Day card, c. 1860-1880 CE. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

The earliest known association of Valentine’s Day with romantic love is in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Parlement of Foules (1382 CE), written for the first anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia. One of the earliest valentine messages still in existence is a 15th-century poem written by Charles, the Duke of Orleans, to his wife, while he was being held in the Tower of London.

By 1797, valentines were becoming so popular that a British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer, full of suggestions for verses in valentine greetings. Cards with verses were already being printed at the time of the Valentine Writer, and numbers of mailed valentines began to soar. (Wikipedia has details.) By 18th-century England, lovers were exchanging flowers and sweets along with greetings. Today, it’s estimated that average Valentine’s Day spending is upward of $100 per person.

MORE RECIPES AND CRAFTS

Gifts may be a nice gesture, but Valentine’s Day doesn’t have to cost a fortune—especially with the DIY ideas from Martha Stewart, DIY Network and Real Simple! The Washington Post recently published an article on how to say “I love you” without breaking the bank.

Cooking a romantic meal at home? Find an assortment of recipes from Food Network, Food & Wine and Taste of Home.

Kids can craft Valentine’s Day greetings with help from Disney’s Family Fun.

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Valentine’s Day: From chocolates to saints, feel the love on this global holiday

Pink-and-red candies spell out "Love" on blue background

Photo by D. Sharon Pruitt, courtesy of Flickr

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 14: Chocolates, hearts and expressions of love are flowing around the world today—all in a tradition that dates back to a legendary, early Christian saint—even though, technically, there were multiple Valentines in early Christianity.

The truth is: This holiday’s history is a bit misty … In ancient Rome, the fertility festival Lupercalia was observed February 13-15, although historians cannot document specific historical links between Lupercalia and the modern Valentine’s Day. For that matter, history doesn’t document any romantic association with Valentine’s Day until the poetry of Geoffrey Chaucer.

The embers of courtly love began glowing in the High Middle Ages, and by the end of the 18th century, Valentine cards were being produced and exchanged. Through the decades, Valentines evolved from lace-and-ribbon trinkets to paper stationery to a holiday involving more expensive gifts, chocolates and, more recently, jewelry. (Wikipedia has details.) The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately 190 million valentines are sent in the United States each year (not including the inexpensive Valentine cards exchanged among schoolchildren).

Many Christian churches discuss God’s love and the sacrament of marriage in liturgy around Valentine’s Day. (Read Pope Benedict’s first encyclical, God is Love, and more at American Catholic.)

Painting of man standing before kneeled woman, angels above, crowd gathered

One of the St. Valentines baptizes St. Lucilla. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

ST. VALENTINE(S):
Nearly a dozen of them!?!

Down through the centuries, Christians have honored nearly a dozen St. Valentines, so any research into the history of the “real” St. Valentine quickly veers toward confusion. Some authors have simplified the matter by giving their own chosen version, but the truth is …

“Nothing is reliably known of St. Valentine except his name and the fact that he died on February 14,” says Wikipedia in a detailed overview of the many Valentines.

How about the noble Encyclopedia Britannica? EB says only that St. Valentine is the “name of two legendary martyrs whose lives seem to be historically based. One was a Roman priest and physician who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Christians by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus and was buried on the Via Flaminia. Pope St. Julius I reportedly built a basilica over his grave. The other, bishop of Terni, Italy, was martyred, apparently also in Rome, and his relics were later taken to Terni. It is possible these are different versions of the same original account and refer to only one person.”

And, American Catholic magazine? That’s one of today’s most popular sources of information for Catholic families. Editors at American Catholic conclude: “Although the mid-February holiday celebrating love and lovers remains wildly popular, the confusion over its origins led the Catholic Church, in 1969, to drop St. Valentine’s Day from the Roman calendar of official, worldwide Catholic feasts. Those highly sought-after days are reserved for saints with more clear historical record. After all, the saints are real individuals for us to imitate. Some parishes, however, observe the feast of St. Valentine.”

So,  if your friends start talking about the history of the “real” St. Valentine—you’re on solid ground to say: “Yes, but no one knows for sure.”

Clearly, churches are free to focus on St. Valentine’s Day—or ignore it—but Catholics worldwide are hearing about a new appeal from Pope Francis I, called “The Joy of Yes Forever.” For weeks now, Vatican officials have been organizing a special gathering of married couples from around the world for a special audience with the pontiff on February 14. Francis is planning to talk about the importance of marriage on the worldwide holiday.

CHOCOLATES, GREETINGS
AND VALENTINE CUSTOMS

Albeit a relatively new addition to Asian culture, Valentine’s Day claims its biggest spenders in this region: Customarily, women in South Korea and Japan give chocolates to all male co-workers, friends and lovers on February 14, with men returning the favor two- or threefold on “White Day,” which occurs on March 14. Residents of Singapore spend, on average, between $100 and $500 on Valentine’s Day gifts, according to a recent report.

French and Welsh households commemorate Christian saints of love, and in Finland and Latin American countries, “love” extends to friends and friendships. Western countries most often acknowledge Valentine’s Day with greeting cards, candies and romantic dinner dates. However, in Islamic countries, many officials have deemed Valentine’s Day as unsuitable for Islamic culture, and in Saudi Arabia, religious police have banned the sale of Valentine’s Day items.

DELICIOUS VALENTINE LINKS

Rows of homemade truffles covered in white chocolate, chocolate drizzles, sprinkles and dusting powder

Photo by Pison Jaujip, courtesy of Flickr

  • Kids can get a heart-ful dose of craft ideas at Spoonful.com.
  • Check out the most romantic restaurants in America by clicking over to Open Table, which rates the nation’s top eateries for lovers. (Photos included.)

IN THE NEWS:
DUCHESS KATE … AND MORE

Duchess Kate of England will open an art center on Valentine’s Day, reports Today.com. For two years, the royal has been a patron of Art Room, a charity that uses art as therapy for children with emotional and behavioral hurdles; today, she will be opening an Art Room at a London high school. The Valentine’s Day appearance will be Kate’s first official event of 2014.

House Democrats have prepared to launch “What Women Need for Valentine’s Day,” an online campaign that spreads awareness of women’s desire for equal pay and treatment in the workplace. Sex and the City actress Cynthia Nixon will join activists in sharing their Valentine’s Day wish list, which includes equal pay and, most likely, paid family and medical leave and affordable childcare.

Note: The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates Saint Valentine’s Day on July 6 and July 30.

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