Meatfare and Cheesefare Sundays: Orthodox Christians prepare for Great Lent

If you know someone from the Orthodox Christian tradition, perhaps at work or in your neighborhood, use this icebreaker: Do you observe Meatfare Sunday or Cheesefare Sunday? How does your family prepare for Lent?

 

Cheeseburger, open, with fries on white plate

Orthodox Christians indulge in meat and cheese for the final time before Pascha (Easter) on the Sundays leading up to Great Lent. Photo courtesy of Pxhere.

SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 11 and SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 18: Lent is quickly approaching for the world’s 2 billion Christians, and on February 11, Eastern Orthodox churches take the first steps steps toward their traditional Lenten fast with Meatfare Sunday. After Meatfare Sunday, no meat may be consumed until Pascha (Easter); one week later, Cheesefare Sunday will discontinue the partaking of dairy products until Pascha. For Orthodox Christians, Great Lent begins on Clean Monday—this year, on February 19.

MEATFARE (LAST JUDGMENT) SUNDAY

Though popularly referred to as Meatfare Sunday, this day is more formally known as the Sunday of the Last Judgment. In services, emphasis is placed on the Second Coming and Last Judgment—a time when Christ, in Matthew, refers to coming in glory with the angels to judge the living and the dead. The parable of the Last Judgment points out that Christ will judge on love: How well God’s love has been shared, and how deeply each person has cared for others.

Interested in cooking up a delicious meat dish?  Find recipes at Allrecipes, Woman’s Day and Food Network.

CHEESEFARE SUNDAY (AND FORGIVENESS)

Great Lent commences for Eastern Christians on the day following Cheesefare Sunday, but the faithful already are cleaning their slates (and their plates) today, by asking forgiveness and eliminating dairy from their diets until Pascha. In the Orthodox church, this year, February 18 is Forgiveness Sunday (also known as Cheesefare Sunday).

Looking for some tasty dairy recipes? Check out Eating Well and Food Network.

Meat hasn’t been consumed since last Sunday, but dairy products will be consumed for the final time today. Throughout Great Lent and until Pascha (Easter), Eastern Christians will observe these fasting customs with only occasional exemptions for oil and wine—but never meat or dairy.

Starting tonight, the Vespers of Forgiveness will signal the first liturgy of Great Lent; the service will end when attendees ask forgiveness from both fellow congregation members and the priest. If you have Orthodox friends and colleagues, this is a moving liturgy to attend, as the process of forgiveness often is deeply personal for the faithful.

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It’s Easter! East and West rejoice in the Resurrection of Jesus

Sunlight through window, dove, white garment over stone bench

Image by Grace Oasis, courtesy of Vimeo

SUNDAY, APRIL 16: Both Eastern and Western Christians rejoice in the celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus on Easter, or Pascha—the focal point of the entire Christian calendar. Hot cross buns, chocolate bunnies and brunch souffles fill tables and baskets of plenty on this joyous day, as families and friends gather. Lilies adorn altar spaces and remind churchgoers both of resurrection (blossoms from dormant spring bulbs) and that Jesus enjoyed a form of lily himself, as is evidenced in the Gospel of Luke. The 50 days following Easter are called Eastertide.

Urbi et Orbi: The pope’s Urbi et Orbi (to the City (Rome) and the world”) blessing, along with Easter Mass, will be available live on YouTube.

Holy Week 2017: Interested in the papal schedule for Holy Week? It was released by the Vatican and is available here.

News 2017: In Jerusalem, the newly restored tomb of Christ, which has been under restoration for almost one year, is reportedly still at risk—but this time, at risk of “catastrophic” collapse, warn scientists, if foundation renovations are not underway soon. (Read more from National Geographic.) A shrine known as the Edicule, enclosing what is believed to be the tomb of Jesus Christ, sits inside the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem; however, as celebrations are underway for the completion of the first renovation, recent surveys have uncovered an unstable foundation beneath the sacred monument. Exactly how to proceed with the difficult archaeological work, however, has yet to be determined.

AROUND THE WORLD: FROM BUNNIES TO LAMBS

Bunny and basket and umbrella on vintage greeting

An Easter greeting. Photo by ArtsyBee, courtesy of Pixabay

Easter in America may be characterized as much by the Easter Bunny and pastel-hued candies as it is by Christian joy in Christ’s Resurrection: Egg hunts, treat-filled baskets and festive brunches mark Easter for many American families.

For many Christians, shared meals may involve white-and-gold settings, fresh lilies on the table and, in many homes, a sacred Paschal Candle. A traditional Easter menu also often features lamb—a symbol of Christ at this time of year as the Paschal Lamb—although these days, Easter hams far outpace cuts of lamb, even on the tables of the faithful.

Hosting your own Easter brunch or dinner? Find recipes at Food Network and AllRecipes, decorating tips from Martha Stewart, and free Easter-themed printables from HGTV.

Easter marketsAustria hosts a whole heap of traditional Easter markets and festivals every year, from the market at Innsbruck to the Salzburg Easter Festival, with plenty of concerts, artisan shows and spring-centered celebrations in between.

ACCORDING TO THE GOSPELS:
THE WITNESS OF AN EMPTY TOMB

The New Testament describes the events of the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe verify him as the Son of God. There is no recorded “moment of resurrection,” but rather, a discovery by Mary Magdalene (and others) early on Sunday morning that Jesus’ tomb was empty.

In his crucifixion, Jesus died on a Roman cross. That evening, according to Christian tradition, Joseph of Arimathea asked the Roman official Pilate for the body, wrapped it in linen cloth and laid it in a tomb.

Saturday passed, and early on Sunday morning, Mary Magdalene (and, some Gospels attest, other women in attendance) visited the tomb of Jesus. Much to their surprise, the tomb’s stone was moved, and a messenger announced that Jesus had risen from the dead. Gospel accounts vary regarding the messenger’s specific message and the women’s response, but all emphasize that the empty tomb was witnessed. To this day, sunrise services are popular in some regions on Easter Sunday, echoing the traditional stories of the empty tomb.

Basket of shiny, marblized, vibrant eggs photographed outside

Photo by Alexas_Fotos, courtesy of Pixabay

Did you know? Ukrainian legend has it that after Christ rose, He threw Satan into a pit and chained him with 12 iron chains. Throughout the year, Satan chews at the chains, but just as he gets to the final chain, Easter arrives and the people shout, “Christ is risen!” If devotees ever cease this Easter acclamation, the end of time has come.

THE EASTER EGG: A SYMBOL & A TRADITION

The Easter egg shines with spring symbolism, and even ancient civilizations associated the egg with new beginnings. Today, children around the globe search for hidden eggs on or near Easter, and decorating those eggs can be as simple or elaborate as the artist allows.

WHITE HOUSE EGG ROLL 2017 UPDATES: On Monday, April 17, the President and First Lady will host the 139th annual White House Easter Egg Roll. The White House Easter Egg Roll is a tradition that dates to 1878, and today, it has grown from local children rolling eggs on the White House lawn to the largest event held at the White House.

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Meatfare Sunday, Cheesefare Sunday: Orthodox Christians prepare for Lent

Bowl of wings and dairy dip on wooden table

Orthodox Christians consume meat and dairy for the last time on the final two Sundays before Great Lent, and will not resume consumption until after Pascha (Easter). Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 19 and SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 26: Lent is approaching fast for the world’s 2 billion Christians, and on February 19, Eastern Orthodox churches take initial steps toward their traditional Lenten fast with Meatfare Sunday. After Meatfare Sunday, no meat may be consumed until Pascha (Easter); in one week, Cheesefare Sunday will discontinue the partaking of dairy products until Pascha. For Orthodox Christians, Great Lent begins on Clean Monday—this year, on February 27.

MEATFARE SUNDAY (AND THE LAST JUDGMENT )

Though commonly referred to as Meatfare Sunday, this day is more formally known as the Sunday of the Last Judgment. In services, emphasis is placed on the Second Coming and Last Judgment—a time when Christ, in Matthew, refers to coming in glory with the angels to judge the living and the dead. While the opportunity exists, the faithful are encouraged to repent. The parable of the Last Judgment points out that Christ will judge on love: How well one has shared God’s love, and how deeply one has cared for others.

Looking to cook up a mouthwatering meat dish (or two) today?  Find recipes at Allrecipes, Southern Living and Food Network.

CHEESEFARE SUNDAY (AND FORGIVENESS)

Great Lent commences for Eastern Christians on the day following Cheesefare Sunday, on Clean Monday—but the faithful already are cleaning their slates (and their plates) today, by asking forgiveness and eliminating dairy from their diets until Pascha. In the Orthodox church, this year, February 26 is Forgiveness Sunday (also known as Cheesefare Sunday).

On the search for a few tasty dairy recipes? Find recipes for all courses from Eating Well, Food Network and Dairy Goodness, a recipe collection from the Dairy Farmers of Canada.

Meat hasn’t been consumed since last Sunday, on Meatfare sunday, but dairy products will be consumed for the final time today. Throughout Great Lent and until Pascha (Easter), Eastern Christians will observe these fasting customs with only occasional exemptions for oil and wine—but never meat or dairy.

Starting tonight, the Vespers of Forgiveness will signal the first liturgy of Great Lent; the service will end when attendees ask forgiveness from both fellow congregation members and the priest. If you have Orthodox friends and colleagues, this is a moving liturgy to attend, as the process of forgiveness often is deeply personal for the faithful.

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Categories: Christian

Pascha: Eastern Orthodox Christians revel in the Resurrection

Priests in vestments with children

A Pascha party in Amsterdam, 2009. Photo by Jim Forest, courtesy of Flickr

SUNDAY, APRIL 12: The Great and Holy Feast of Pascha brings the ultimate joy of the Resurrection of Christ to the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church, in the most significant day of the year. From an Orthodox perspective: It is the feast of feasts; it is the fundamental truth of the Christian faith; it is Christ’s victory over death.

For Orthodox Christians following the Julian calendar, today’s Pascha confirms the truth of Christ’s teachings. The Resurrection, it is believed, proclaims God’s plan, the divination of man and the order of the universe.

PASCHA: AN ODE TO JOY

Before midnight on Saturday, the Odes of Lamentation are repeated; a celebrant approaches a temporary tomb, and the winding-sheet is removed from it. The Orthros of Resurrection begins in darkness. Hymns are sung and, in most churches, the priest leads congregation members outside, where the Gospel is read. (Find details at Orthodox Church in America.) Before reentering the church, the priest announces the resurrection of Christ. When the priest begins the hymn of Resurrection, the Easter service takes on a full festal tone. Back inside, the Easter Matins service is sung in its entirety.

The Pascha icon shines at the center of the church—the image of Christ destroying the gates of hell and freeing Adam and Eve from the captivity of death. Congregants proclaim: “Christ is risen!” As the Easter Matins comes to a close, the Easter Hours are sung, followed by the proclamation of the Paschal Sermon of St. John Chrysostom. (Learn more from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.) The sermon invites everyone, young and old, to forget their sins and to join in the feast of the resurrection of Christ.

PASCHA: A FORM OF ‘PASSOVER’

While the Western term for the Resurrection celebration, Easter, is more widely accepted in the West, Eastern Orthodox Christians often point out that the term Pascha more accurately describes the events of Christ’s life, death and rising. While Easter is most likely derived from Ostara, an ancient Pagan springtime festival, Pascha is translated from Greek as “Passover.” Pascha describes the Jewish festival of Passover, as well as Christ as the paschal lamb.

Tomorrow, the Monday following Pascha, is known as Bright Monday, and the remainder of the week is Bright Week. Throughout Bright Week, services are similar to those of Pascha.

Wondering what Pascha is like in Greece? Read the colorful, vibrant details of a childhood in Lefkada, as penned by a writer for the Huffington Post.

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Categories: Christian

Pascha: Eastern Orthodox Christians rejoice in the Resurrection of Jesus

Russian Patriarch in elaborate robes holding candles in a fanciful cathedral, surrounded by a circle of men also in elaborate robes

Patriarcha Kirill of Moscow and all Russia during a Pascha service at Christ the Savior Cathedral in Moscow. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

SUNDAY, APRIL 20: The glorious day has arrived and 2 billion Christians the world over come to rejoice in the Resurrection of Jesus. For Eastern Orthodox Christians, today is the Great and Holy Pascha. So named because of its reference to Jesus, the paschal lamb (St. John indicates that Jesus was crucified at the time the paschal lambs were being killed), in addition to the historical occurrence of Jesus’ crucifixion during the Passover feast, Orthodox Christians hold dear the name of Pascha. The Orthodox Research Institute does indicate, however, that the word Easter may be used interchangeably with Pascha in mixed company, for both titles hail the same event that defines the very essence of Christianity: the Resurrection (and eventual Ascension) of Jesus.

Pascha services begin in the darkness of Saturday evening, running late into the night. Just before midnight, a celebrant walks to the church’s temporary “tomb,” and removes the cover sheet: and behold, Jesus is not there! The sheet is carried to the altar table, and at midnight, the magnificent Pascha procession begins.  (Learn more from Orthodox Church in America.)

The Paschal Troparion is sung, together with the verses of Psalm 68, which from now will signal the start of every service during the Easter season. In a church adorned in flowers, attendants face the Easter icon: an image of Christ destroying the gates of hell and freeing Adam and Eve from death. The atmosphere is overwhelmingly joyous; hymns announce victory over death, and all are invited to partake in the Holy Communion, of Christ, the Passover lamb.

RUSSIA & GREECE: KULICH, TSOUREKI, THE PASSOVER LAMB AND RED EGG LEGENDS

Round, braided bread, brown on top with one red egg on top. Three red eggs sit beside the bread on a table

Traditional Greek Pascha bread, tsoureki, is decorated with symbolic red eggs. Photo by Lorenzo Gaudenzi, courtesy of Flickr

Unlike the Western Christian Lenten fast, which prohibits meat just on Fridays and on Ash Wednesday, the Eastern Orthodox Lenten fast prohibits dairy and meat during the entire season—and so on Pascha, the feast is magnificent! A primary component of the Russian table today is pascha—a dense, cold cheesecake often made with curd cheese and dried fruits—alongside kulichi, soft fruit cakes. (Find an authentic recipe for pascha here. A recipe for kulich, or kulichi, is here.)

In Greece, grilled vegetables, bean salads, seafood and breads complement the centerpiece: the Pascha lamb. Spiced to perfection, the lamb (or, occasionally, goat) satisfies palates alongside the traditional tsoureki, a Greek bread that is decorated with red eggs. (Recipes for Greek lamb, soup, asparagus and tsoureki are in this article from National Public Radio.)

Why red eggs? Red eggs have long been an integral part of Eastern Orthodox Pascha, and with good reason: several legends tell of miracles that began with red eggs. In one, Mary Magdalene was bringing cooked eggs to share with the other women at the tomb of Jesus, and when she saw the risen Jesus Christ, the eggs suddenly turned a vibrant red. In a different story, Mary Magdalene was spreading word of Jesus’ resurrection when she approached the doubtful Emperor of Rome. Upon her greeting, the emperor remarked that, “Christ has no more risen than that egg is red.” With that, the egg turned a dark red. Yet another legend tells of Mary Magdalene’s egg turning red in the presence of Julius Caesar—and because of these miraculous stories, Orthodox Christians exchange red eggs at Pascha.

The next seven days—beginning today, on Pascha—are known as Bright Week, or Renewal Week.

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