Paryushan Parva: Jains enter period of intense meditation and forgiveness

White temple agains sunset sky

The Manas Mandir Jain Temple in India. Photo courtesy of Pixabay

MONDAY, AUGUST 29: The deepest spiritual period of the year arrives for Jains today with the festival of Paryushana. For eight or 10 days (Swetambar Jains observe Paryushana for eight days; Digambar Jains observe for 10), adherents fast, study sacred texts and make a renewal of faith.

In comparison to other world religions, Jainism incorporates an especially deep concern and respect for all living beings, from animals and insects, to plants and root vegetables. (Learn more from Jain World.) Jain monks uphold this value to the highest level.

Did you know? Swetambar Jains observe the festival as Paryushana; Digambars refer to it as Das Lakshana. Some Jains in the United States observe the festival for 18 days, which combines the Swetambar and Digambar periods.

During the eight-day festival for Swetambar Jains, the Kalpa Sutra is recited, which includes a portion on the birth of Mahavira, the final Tirthankara, or spiritual exemplar. Some Swetambar Jains recite the Antagada Sutra, which describes the lives of men and women who attained moksha, or soul liberation, during the era of Mahavira. In many communities, a procession is made to the main temple during Paryushana.

Looking for recipes? Many observant Jains already keep a vegetarian diet, but during the period of Paryushan Parva, additional dietary restrictions are practiced. Find 35 delicious Parushan recipes at Archana’s Kitchen, and Indian food blog website.

Indian boy standing against concrete wall holding basket

A young Jain stands outside of a temple in India. Photo by Meena Kadri, courtesy of Flickr

THE FESTIVAL OF FORGIVENESS

A vital element of the Paryushan Parva is the asking of forgiveness—from other persons, animals and any other form of life, whether the offense is known or not. Jains ask forgiveness with the words “Micchami Dukkadam,” or “Uttam Kshama,” which conveys the meaning: “If I have cause you offense in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought or deed, then I seek your forgiveness.” This ritual may be referred to as the rite of universal friendship.

For the duration of this festival, Jains are expected to uphold 10 specific virtues:

  • Forgiveness
  • Modesty/humility
  • Straightforwardness
  • Contentment/purity
  • Truth
  • Self-restraint
  • Penance
  • Renunciation
  • Non-attachment
  • Supreme celibacy
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