SATURDAY, DECEMBER 26: Learn the seven principles and gather in the name of unity—for the seven-day commemoration of Kwanzaa. This year, more families are expected to observe the festival because of publicity marking 2016 as the festival’s “50th anniversary.”
Smithsonian Magazine quotes a scholar describing Kwanzaa as “one of the most lasting innovations of United States black nationalism of the 1960s.” The Toledo Blade points out various ways Kwanzaa has made a lasting impact in this northern Ohio city. The Chicago Defender describes the arrival of this festival in Chicago half a century ago.
Created by Dr. Maulana Karenga in the mid-1960s as the first completely African-American holiday, Kwanzaa celebrations honor African heritage and culture. Though originally associated with the black nationalist movement, Kwanzaa today is often focused on unity for all and on connecting Africans of the Diaspora with their native roots.
Specifically, the “seven principles” call to mind what Karenga refers to as a “communitarian African philosophy.”
Did you know? “Kwanzaa” is from the Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza, or “first fruits of the harvest.”
Each day of Kwanzaa is dedicated to a principle, resulting in a total of seven Kwanzaa principles. The principles, though they may vary slightly in spellings, consist of: Umoja (unity); Kujichagulia (self-determination); Ujima (collective work and responsibility); Ujamaa (cooperative economics); Nia (purpose); Kumbaa (creativity); and Imani (faith).
Kwanzaa urges participants to maintain unity in family and race, to define themselves, to build community and profit together, and to always do what is possible at the moment. (Wikipedia has details.) Symbols and decorations aid in the unity of Kwanzaa observances, such as a decorative mat (mkeka), corn, a seven-candle holder (kinara) and a communal or unity cup. Often, an African feast—known as Karamu—is held on the sixth day of Kwanzaa, and gifts (zawadi) are exchanged on the seventh day.
Did you know? The proper greeting for Kwanzaa is “Joyous Kwanzaa.”
Household celebrations for Kwanzaa often include children, as do public Kwanzaa ceremonies. (Teachers and parents: You’ll find kid-oriented learning materials and resources at Scholastic.com.) Community gatherings may include music, drumming, dancing, libations and the reading of the principles. Artistic performances, storytelling and ritual candle-lighting are also common.
In its nearly half-a-century of observance, Kwanzaa has spread in popularity throughout the United States and into Canada.