Review of ‘The Witness’ on PBS: a personal look at Kitty Genovese’s murder

PBS Independent Lens airs The Witness about the Kitty Genovese murder case half a century ago.

CLICK on this image to visit the PBS “Independent Lens” website, which includes ways to see the documentary on TV or through online streaming.


Editor of ReadTheSpirit Magazine

Anyone who grew up in the 1960s—or enjoys TV legal dramas—probably has heard of the infamous Kitty Genovese murder case. She was the pretty young woman who was knifed repeatedly on a street in the New York City borough of Queens as dozens of witnesses refused to help her—or even to call police.

Her tragic death half a century ago was seen as the epitome of American apathy. The outrage helped move government officials to develop our national 9-1-1 emergency calling system to make it easier for crime witnesses to reach police. The shocking apathy of the witnesses has been explored repeatedly in prime time on network news series like 20/20, plus at least three episodes of the Law & Order TV series, plus Perry Mason—and a host of other popular TV shows.

So, with the start of a turbulent new year in the United States—with questions raised about whether Americans truly care about the vulnerable among us—the PBS Independent Lens series is airing the powerful 90-minute documentary created by Kitty’s younger brother, Bill.

At this point, after books and TV series and countless newspaper and magazine stories, it’s hard to imagine that there’s much left to surprise us—or even to move us to greater compassionate action. But The Witness, a title that refers to Bill’s personal crusade to create this documentary as a final witness to his sister’s life and death, almost certainly will move you and likely will surprise you as well.

That’s perhaps enough of a review to prompt you to search out the film on PBS. There are a number of ways to see this documentary, even if your local PBS station does not carry the Independent Lens series. You can learn more by visiting the PBS Web hub for Independent Lens and The Witness.

Thought-provoking surprises

There are, indeed, surprises in this film for most of us. Here are a a few of them:

WHY!?! It is startling to learn that we still don’t know—even after half a century of exhaustive research into this case—exactly why Winston Moseley (who died in prison in 2016 at age 81) murdered Kitty. We do know that it was a horrific crime. It’s also true that Moseley was able to finish off Kitty because of the apathy of witnesses. He attacked her once on the sidewalk with a knife. Then, he fled. After it was clear that no one would help her, he was able to return to where she had collapsed in a doorway and continue his attack.

But, it’s still uncertain why he killed her. The attack appears to have been a lethal sexual assault. However, in a bizarre letter to Kitty’s brother Bill before his death, Moseley suggests a different motive. Then, in this new film, Moseley’s adult son gives us yet another strange motive. You’ll be left wondering exactly why it happened in the first place.

KITTY WAS GAY, and her sexual orientation seems to have been overlooked in most earlier versions of her life story. Moseley’s attack does not appear to have been an anti-gay hate crime. But, the fact that Kitty wanted freedom from her conservative family is the underlying reason she remained in the city after the rest of her family moved to a quiet part of Connecticut. It’s also one reason her family had ambivalent attitudes toward her, after her death. It appears to have contributed to the confusion over her life—and ultimately to her death.

THE DEATH PENALTY is a central issue in this case. Moseley managed to avoid a death sentence—but there are troubling questions about the decision to leave him alive in a prison cell. At one point, he managed to escape from prison and he carried out additional attacks. Once behind bars again, he was able to spin a series of manipulative lies, including some outrageous fabrications that caused ongoing pain for Kitty’s family. However you feel about the death penalty, this film raises troubling questions about the sentencing of predators like Moseley. Perhaps the world would have been far better if Mosley had not lived a long life in prison.

FINALLY, WHAT ABOUT THE ACTUAL WITNESSES? Overall, the reported “38 witnesses” did not respond in a helpful way as Kitty was dying. We now know that the situation was different than most of us had assumed. Most of these 38 people were not eye witnesses. Some only heard a distant scream. It is true that at least a few of the infamous 38 did glimpse the assault and then turned a cold shoulder to Kitty.

What is most surprising about the interviews with the witnesses who are still alive is that one courageous “housewife” actually did drop everything and raced to try to help Kitty. Somehow, this one friend who risked everything to reach the dying woman seems to have been invisible in earlier popular accounts.

Bill’s long quest to find that now-elderly woman—and meet with her on camera—caps the film with a note of hope and compassion.

Consider: The Witness also is terrific for small-group discussion on a wide range of issues. Don’t miss it!


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Plan now to mark Reformation’s 500th anniversary

luther-2017-500-years-of-reformation-logo-posterNOTE from ReadTheSpirit Editor David Crumm:

No other anniversary in our lifetimes can tell us more about our turbulent world today than the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther’s explosive religious revolution.

How deeply did this action in Europe affect us all? Start by asking yourself: Why do individual Americans so firmly believe that we each have a god-given right to express and act on our personal opinions? You can thank the Reformation for that assumption about divine rights. In fact, historians argue that the social-media revolution transforming our world is really the legacy of moveable-type printing presses and widespread pamphleteering that were invented in Europe five centuries ago—and that fueled the Reformation.

Yale historian Carlos Eire writes, in his new 900-page history, Reformations: “What Martin Luther set in motion in 1517 not only changed the world as it was then; it still continues to shape our world today and to define who we are in the West.”

To kick off this historic year, we invite author and columnist Benjamin Pratt to stir our reflections on the Reformation by describing his own recent visit to Luther’s home …

Martin Luther 2017:
500 years of Reformation


One of the artfully decorated “doors” along the streets of Wittenberg, Germany.


Does anyone still post theses on a door?

Yes, students from the city of Wittenberg, Germany, have blended creativity and artistic skills to create their own theses of hope for change on doors that line the walking street at the center of the ol’ town. Take a stroll down this lovely street and soak in the challenges and energy of these provocative students.

They have taken their inspiration from Martin Luther himself. Popular accounts say that Luther tacked his Ninety-Five Theses against the misuse of indulgences on the door of Wittenberg’s Castle Church on October 31, 1517. In Luther’s time, his action was the equivalent of sending an email or social media message to fellow faculty members. His goal was to start a discussion. The door was the community bulletin board.

The spark that lit the fires of the Reformation was Luther’s outrage over the “trade in souls,” indulgences granted in exchange for money. The Grand Commissioner for Indulgences, sanctioned by the Pope, was Dominican monk Johann Tetzel. Tetzel is credited with a little ditty to seduce those concerned about their deceased loved ones’ souls:
As soon as the coin in the coffer rings,
A soul from Purgatory springs.

Tetzel was very creative in luring contributors to his Indulgence Chest (which can be seen near the high altar at Magdeburg Cathedral). Tetzel even sold forgiveness for sins not yet committed. One tale is that a rich donor went to Tetzel with a request to buy full forgiveness for his future sin of murder. He didn’t reveal that his intended victim was Tetzel himself!

Posting on the Castle Church door was an innocent beginning that launched a global movement. This action sparked change in Germany as well as the rest of Europe and America, making a mark around the world. It birthed the Lutheran Church and the continuing religious and theological splinters of Protestantism: Anglican, Wesleyan, Baptist, Presbyterian, to name only a few. The Reformation was not limited to religion and theology; it impacted music, art, the economy and social order, language and law. There is hardly an aspect of our lives, today, that was unaffected by the Reformation.

Martin Luther joined a few friends to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the “destruction of the indulgences” on November 1, 1527. The November 1st commemoration has been celebrated as Reformation Day, along with All Souls/All Saints Day, for centuries. The 500th Anniversary of the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses will occur on October 31, 2017 in Wittenberg, Germany. This quiet, charming university city on the Elbe River is bracing for 300,000 visitors that day. If Pope Francis accepts the invitation extended to him, I suspect the numbers will swell. The Pope is among religious leaders from many other traditions invited to attend.


Benjamin and his wife Judith rest on the seats outside Luther’s door in Wittenberg.

The Luther House (Lutherhaus) in Wittenberg was the primary place Martin Luther lived and worked for almost 35 years. He continued to live in this monastery house called the “Black Cloister” from 1525 when he married Katharina von Bora, This lively house, which she remodeled and painted white, was home to their six children as well as Luther’s six nieces and nephews. The Luther House, the world’s largest Reformation museum, covers the life, work and effect of Luther and his courageous wife. Wittenberg is a treasure trove of memorable sites including the Castle Church with its world famous Theses Door and the graves of Luther and his colleague Philip Melanchthon, as well as the newly renovated Town Church with its impressive Cranach altarpiece.

If you are planning a pilgrimage to celebrate this 500th anniversary, you might want to plan well and early. Don’t limit your pilgrimage to Wittenberg. Many cities in eastern Germany are connected to the life and vitality of Martin Luther. Consider Eisenach, where Luther lived in Wartburg Castle’s protective custody from the Pope’s death threats, and assumed the name of Junker Jörg. He grew his hair and beard and wore secular clothing. During this period, he completed what many consider his most important work, the translation of the New Testament.

Luther was born on November 10, 1483, in Eisleben and baptized the next day in the nearby Church of St. Peter and Paul. On February 18, 1546, the cycle of Luther’s life ended in his birthplace. Luther had spent the last three weeks of his life in Eisleben engaged in reconciling differences between two lords of the region. The houses where he was born and died are now open for visits.

Erfurt is considered the spiritual home of Martin Luther. On July 17, 1505, Luther requested admission into the Erfurt monastery, home to the Augustinian hermits, an order famous for its scholarship. It was here that he was ordained a priest in 1507. The Augustinian Monastery pays great tribute to Luther with a permanent exhibit of his cell and The Library of the Evangelical Ministry. Overnight accommodations are available at the conference center.

Luther preached at the Augustinian monastery church on June 24, 1524. The crowd was so huge that he preached the same sermon two nights later at St. John’s Church. His thesis about true and false righteousness was so well received that by July 17th, nearly every church in Magdeburg had converted to the Protestant faith.

Katharina von Bora, Luther’s wife, died in 1552 in Torgau. Her grave in the Town Church of St. Mary and the Katharina Luther memorial in her last home are dedicated to her courageous life and work.

Plan your pilgrimage now! There are so many excellent sites and events that will enable you to celebrate the life and impact of Martin Luther.



A message on one of the “doors” on display in the streets of Wittenberg, Germany.

Care to read more?


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How can we serve you, and the world, in 2017?

new-years-eve-ball-falling-2By DAVID CRUMM
Editor of ReadTheSpirit Magazine

Now more than ever, we need your help. If you are reading these words, we hope you will take a few minutes and respond with your suggestions of stories you’d like to see journalists cover in 2017 concerning religious and cultural diversity.

Who wants to know? I do as founding Editor of this online magazine, which now has served readers around the world for more than a decade. As 2017 opens, I am working with an American network of media professionals—as well as the International Association of Religion Journalists—to choose stories that we should cover in the new year.

Simply email

Why is this important? With continued downsizing of American newspapers and magazines, in particular, fewer media professionals with journalistic training in fairness, accuracy and balance will be working in the new year. Given the cataclysmic confrontations around the world in 2016 concerning religious and cultural diversity, we want to help journalists find the most important stories we should be covering in this new year.


What kinds of ideas are we hoping you’ll send us? Each month, ReadTheSpirit draws more than 30,000 unique readers from around the world. Most readers are American, but a significant minority each month are from countries including Canada, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, Africa and Latin America. We hope you will stop to think, for a few minutes, about our question and respond.

ReadTheSpirit magazine, over the past decade, has specialized in covering many aspects of religious and cultural diversity. We are especially known for our coverage of new books and films. We also cover religious holidays, festivals and anniversaries. And we write regularly about food, the fine arts, travel and a host of other related issues. We also highlight important peacemakers and advocates helping vulnerable communities—people we all should get to know. A few examples of how you might respond:

  • What book or film should we cover in 2017?
  • What food customs should we cover in FeedTheSpirit?
  • What author or filmmaker or artist or religious leader should we try to interview?
  • In our Holidays coverage, what milestone or festival or anniversary is coming in 2017 that we shouldn’t miss?
  • Is there a peacemaker we should highlight? Do you know of a creative and effective activist helping families in vulnerable communities—someone whose work should be lifted up?

These are just some of the questions you could answer in your email.

Please tell us what you think …

To repeat: Simply email

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Kent Nerburn: Timely Voices from Indian Country


‘Elder Addressing Crowd.’ This photograph, made in August 2016, is now one of the most famous images from the Standing Rock Native American protests against construction of a pipeline. The photo shows a circle of Indian activists respectfully listening to the elder in the center. His movement is blurred because the photograph was made by Shane Balkowitsch, one of few photographers allowed at these sacred ceremonies. Shane is known for his use of “wet plate” photographic techniques pioneered in the mid 1800s that once recorded photographs of great Indian leaders from that era.


“You see the ways of the newcomers beginning to fail.
Their faith in the future has caused them to ignore the lessons of the past. Their belief in the individual has caused them to lose touch with the ways of the Creator. Their concern with the human has deafened them to the voices of the other creatures and of the very earth itself. Their love of freedom has made them blind to responsibility.”
from Kent Nerburn’s new book


Listening to the ‘Voices in the Stones’

ReadTheSpirit Editor

Here is the last thing best-selling author Kent Nerburn said in our interview about his timely new book on Native American culture:

“If we hope to turn for help to Native American people, we have to understand that we have always been guests in their house. For a long time, we forgot that or we denied it. But, finally, we’re beginning to realize what that means. Now, we all find ourselves standing in the middle of a battle over our relationship with the earth—and whether we can even survive on the planet. We know this because, over and over again, the earth is slapping us in the face. And, at last—after centuries of demonizing and destroying native peoples—we realize that we need their wisdom to help save us all. The genius of native peoples is that they know how to walk humbly on the earth. But the question is: Can we humble ourselves and listen to them?”

Voices in the Stones_cvr-fnl.indd

Click the cover to visit the book’s Amazon page.

Those final words from Nerburn in the interview are also the first thing you need to know about his powerful new book, which ReadTheSpirit is urging you to order for yourself and friends as winter blows into the Great Plains.

As winter arrives in 2016, no spiritual topic has sparked more questions from our readers than the protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline (#NoDAPL) near the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. We’ve heard from men and women around the world, wondering if they should travel to the protest site. If they do make the trip, they have asked, will Indian activists welcome them? Many have asked about the connection between #NoDAPL protests in the streets of major cities—and the solemn prayer circles near Standing Rock that visitors describe as surprisingly transformative. Collectively, we sense that a historic confrontation is unfolding in Sioux country south of Bismarck—but our common ways of understanding and describing such events seem to be failing us.

Global interest in the protests reached a crescendo on Sunday (Dec. 4, 2016) with the announcement that U.S. Army Corps will force a rerouting of the pipeline. This is front-page news from U.S. newspapers to publications around the world concerned about the environment and the rights of Native peoples. Already, new questions are arising about whether an incoming Trump administration will reverse the Army’s decision. Meanwhile, major news outlets, like the Washington Post on Dec. 5, are beginning to explore the deeper Native American religious traditions that fueled this remarkable movement.

As an author, Kent Nerburn’s fingertips have been on the pulse of Indian country for three decades. Now, he has just published with New World Library, Voices in the Stone: Life Lessons in the Native WayThis book (which he finished writing just before the public protests broke out this year) does not describe specific events in the current confrontation. Rather, the book is an eloquent, perfectly timed exploration of Indian culture that should be required reading coast to coast this winter.

In less than 200 pages, Nerburn explores Indian perspectives on how we all have reached this dangerous—and bittersweet—moment in which so many historic and spiritual forces are converging. Known by his long-time readers as a beloved storyteller of real-life stories from his travels, in these pages Nerburn serves up a series of thought-provoking stories guaranteed to inspire (and trouble) your soul, this season. Among the best is an account of an Indian burial he attended—juxtaposed with the burial of his own father.


One of his most potent cross-cultural messages concerns the value of elders in our world.

On a practical level, Nerburn writes, native cultures honor the wisdom of elders who have survived so many of life’s twists and turns—in sharp contrast to American culture that seems to be obsessed with youth. That’s simply a factual comparison and perhaps not surprising to readers. What’s so stirring about this new book, however, is Nerburn’s reflections on what elders represent on a deeper spiritual level to a culture determined to survive even the direst disasters. As the planet teeters on the cusp of environmental catastrophe, Nerburn argues that it’s time for all of us to seek the wisdom of elders who have found ways to survive for many millennia on this planet.

“More important than any of the specific details of the Standing Rock protests—who did what to whom in these confrontations—is the spiritual truth that’s emerging. That’s one reason Standing Rock is capturing the imagination of so many people—even in my own family, my daughter talks about this,” Nerburn said in the interview. “We’re seeing photographs of people standing in prayer circles like something out of the old Edward Curtis images of Indian life. People are going out there to join the protest who probably have never prayed a day in their lives and they’re discovering this very different reality out there—people humbly standing in prayer. At the beginning, I have to admit I was cynical about the motives of some of the non-Indian people heading out to Standing Rock. But, I have to say that cynicism is softening. At it’s best, people are learning something new in this whole experience from the Native people.”

What Nerburn hopes people are learning—and what they certainly will discover in his book—is the fundamentally different Indian perspective about our place, as humans, in the world. “They see humanity as a part of the earth—not apart from it. That difference conveys Native thinking and it’s obviously what’s driving the Standing Rock movement right now. I heard a CNN commentator talking about her surprise about what she found at the site. She said she’d never seen any protest like it. Overall, I see these little rivulets of a deeper understanding making their way into our collective consciousness.”


Those words from Nerburn also point toward the power of this book. Confronting events at Standing Rock—either through news reports and social media or a personal visit—is a dive into very deep waters of Indian culture. In this new book, Nerburn once again takes on his beloved role as a non-Indian traveler on our behalf—a guide to the expansive shape of this cultural realm.

In the book, Nerburn writes: “To most of us, Native America is an unknown world shrouded in myth and misconception. To the extent we think of it at all, we imagine a world of drunks, welfare cheats, and casino millionaires or, conversely, elders possessed of deep, mystical earth wisdom. What we don’t see are people who predate us here on this continent and who, in their many ways and many centuries of life, have evolved a way of understanding and interacting with the land that is at once distinctly different from the Eruo-American way and rich with a knowledge of its own.”

And, that’s what Nerburn hopes readers will be looking for as they join him, as narrator, in these pages.

In the interview, he added: “Like I say in that section of the book you just quoted—as Americans, we tend to cast the Native American story in terms of the easiest labels we find to slap on Indian country. We think of drunks, or casinos, or some self-proclaimed shaman who will channel Native American wisdom for you as an individual. In the case of Standing Rock, a lot of the news media is trying to slap on the typical labels we expect in environmental activism. And, yes, of course, there is an ecological issue here. So, the labels seem to fit. We can begin to think of this as just a big game being played out in the Plains. But, if that’s all we see, we’ve missed the real story.

“The real story is that a people who we’ve demonized for centuries is emerging to speak to us about the deeper values of our water and the very blood of mother earth. You begin to connect these much deeper dots all around the world and you realize that climate change is touching all of us. Think about the desertification of Africa and the voices of Native peoples there—and in so many places all around the world. This is not a game someone is playing with winners and losers and all the cast of characters we expect to find in a game—no, this is a moment of change in world consciousness. And this is coming from people who can teach us so much about survival—generation to generation—if we’ve only got the humility to learn from them.”

That’s a major motive behind Nerburn’s decision to write this new book. “I worry for my kids and not just for their relationship to the earth today. As time passes: How are they going to live on mother earth? Anyone who cares about the next generations asks these kinds of questions: How do we counsel our kids in the face of this world that they’re growing into—and their children will be born into? I do hope that this new book is a kind of primer to a different way of understanding and seeing our place on the earth as we grow and age.

“We’re raised by our parents with the hope that we somehow will become accomplished in some way. But, as we age, we realize that our ultimate spiritual goal is to become humble. When you become humble, you become watchful. And when watchfulness deepens, we become mindful of ourselves and others and the earth beneath our feet. And, if we can grow like that, then we truly have accomplished something as humans: We can learn to live humbly in the face of life’s mysteries and, in the process, we share our hearts and our spirits with each other.”


Care to read more?

kent-nerburn-author-photo-voices-in-the-stonesKent Nerburn is not Native American, although men and women across Indian country have widely adopted him since his 1994 landmark book, Neither Wolf Nor Dog: On Forgotten Roads with an Indian ElderYou can read more about him, his thoughts and his ongoing work at his author website.

Among our past ReadTheSpirit stories involving Kent Nerburn are these columns that have been especially popular with readers:

KENT ON ‘BUFFALO’ and ‘WOLF’This 2013 in-depth Q&A with Kent about his book The Girl Who Sang to the Buffalo also includes a lot about his life as a writer, theologian and artist, including his earlier work on the Wolf books.

‘LETTERS TO MY SON’This 2014 interview with Kent explores the theme of generational learning.

‘TAXI DRIVER‘—Kent’s voice has touched countless lives in countless ways. In 2012, we published this story that went viral, popularly known as ‘Cab Driver‘ or ‘Taxi Driver.’

This story was originally published at, an online magazine established in 2007 to report on spirituality, diversity and cross cultural issues, including news about books and films.

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Warm your heart with this ‘Winter’ collection from Iona’s Wild Goose


Click the cover to visit the book’s page at Wild Goose Publications.

Our friends at Wild Goose Publications in Scotland—part of the Iona Community—have published a richly diverse collection of readings to warm our hearts this winter. The subtitle mentions November, December and January specifically—but this is a book you can enjoy right through until spring. And, then, you’ll put it on your shelf to pull down again, year after year.

We’re pleased to tell our readers that one of our most popular columnists—Benjamin Pratt—is included in this volume with one of his all-time favorite stories: Angel in the Dump.

NOTE: Wild Goose Publications sells this book through its website in the UK. As a community of conscience, the publishing team asks that you support Iona by purchasing this book through the Wild Goose website. If you do, you’ll wind up with a holiday gift that’s unique and full of wonders—and you’ll be doing good in the world by supporting Iona.

Ruth Burgess, the overall editor of the volume, sent this personal note to our readers:

I am privileged to be the person who put ‘Winter’ together. Contributors range from teenagers to 99-year-olds, from people who have never seen their name in a book to those who are regularly published authors, from a variety of Christian perspectives and none, and they come from Europe, North America and Australia.

Different people have different gifts and different styles of writing. There are stories and poems in the book, and prayers and songs. There are ideas and experiences that will make you laugh and question and cry. A number of the contributions are written with all-age worship in mind.

Winter is a gift from its authors to worship leaders and to individuals. Enjoy unwrapping it.

And from all of us at ReadTheSpirit:

Thanks Ruth! Thanks Ben! Thanks Wild Goose!

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Benjamin Pratt review: ‘The Homestretch’ and faces of homelessness


Click this DVD cover to visit the page for this Icarus Films documentary on Amazon.

A film by Anne De Mare and Kirsten Kelly

Alas for those who lie on beds of ivory,
and lounge on their couches, and eat lambs from the flock, and calves from the stall;
who sing idle songs to the sound of the harp,
and like David improvise on instruments of music;
who drink wine from bowls,
and anoint themselves with the finest oils,
but are not grieved over the ruin of Joseph!
Amos 6: 4-6

A billionaire is about to become our President. Twenty-two thousand Chicago public school students are homeless. An estimated 1.6 million homeless youth live in America. This is a moral issue, a very serious one, which our wealthy society fails to face and correct.

The Homestretch is a heart-wrenching film that confronts our souls as it follows Roque, Kasey and Anthony, three homeless teens, while they struggle to graduate from school and craft a future. This heart-breaking but uplifting documentary challenges stereotypes of homelessness. With unprecedented access into Chicago public schools, Night Ministry’s Crib emergency youth shelter, and Teen Living Programs’ Belfort House, homelessness is exposed. We meet these youth and their tireless, compassionate teachers who extend themselves way beyond their job descriptions.

The film invites us to grieve over the ruin of Joseph!

REVIEW by Benjamin Pratt

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Benjamin Pratt review: Talent has Hunger is pure joy


Click the cover to visit the documentary’s Amazon page.

Directed by Josh Aronson

Pure joy!

This mesmerizing film, stretching over seven years, captures the skill of master cello teacher, Paul Katz, with numerous musical prodigies. Katz reveals how an art form is passed from generation to generation in the oral tradition.

We witness his warm, compassionate connection that pulls each student’s innate talents well beyond technique to the gifted capacity of emotional, soul-filled interpretations of music. His frank, demanding honesty, humor and empathy pull deeper gifts from each student than they ever imagine.

This reveals clearly that teaching is more important than performing because it passes the art to future generations. This master teacher offers more than music; he builds self-esteem and aesthetic character in each student.

One exceptional benefit of this joyous experience: you hear the music of angels from the instrument most closely aligned to the human soul, the cello.

REVIEW by Benjamin Pratt

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